Excerpts from "Personality correlates of human blood groups." Personality and Individual Differences, pp. 215-216, Vol.4, No.2 ,1983.
V. V. Jogawar in India studied the relationship between ABO blood type and personalty factor after R. B. Cattell. Subjects were 590 students of 11 colleges in India.
A close scrutiny of the above results indicates a consistent trend about B group. It shows that as compared to the other groups the B-group persons are (a) emotionally less stable, (b) more apprehensive, (c) less self-sufficient, and (d) more tense.
Of these four characteristics, at least three -- (a), (b), (d) -- are readily be classified under 'affective' or 'emotional' behaviour, and the data therefore support the Angst and Maurer-Groeli (1974) findings that emotionality is related to blood group B. There are no data here to support the relationship between introversion and AB blood group.
Cattell's 16 Personalty Factor test does not make "stereotype" -- some Japanese psychologists says -- because the relation between blood group and personality is not a general topic in India and its question items are not open to the public. By the way, 16PF test paper is not sold to usual people like me. I finally gave up to get it although I intended to examine question items.
Excerpts from R. B. Cattell et al., "The relation of blood types to primary and secondary personality traits." The Mankind Quarterly, pp35-51, Vol. 21, 1980.
DESCRIPTION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PERSONALITY FACTORS
|Low-Score Description||High-Score Description|
Reserved, detached, crictical, aloof, stiff
Outgoing, warmheartedness, easygoing, participating
|C||LOWER EGO STRENGTH
At mercy of feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset, changeable
|HIGHER EGO STRENGTH
Emotionally stable, mature, faces reality, calm
Humble, mild, easily led, docile, accommodating
Assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn
Sober, taciturn, serious
Happy-go lucky, gay enthusiastic
|G||WEAKER SUPEREGO STRENGTH
Expedient, disregards rules
|STRONGER SUPEREGO STRENGTH
Conscientious, persistent, moralistic
Shy, timid, threat-sensitive
Venturesome, uninhibited, socially bold
Tough minded, self-reliant, realistic
Tender minded, sensitive, clinging, overprotected
Trusting, accepting conditions
Suspicious, hard to fool
Practical, "down to earth" concerns
Imaginative, bohemian, absent-minded
Forthright, unpretentious, genuine, but socially clumsy
Astute, polished, socially aware
|Q1||CONSERVATIVISM OF TEMPERAMENT
Conservative, respecting traditional ideas
Experimeinting, liberal, free-thinking
Group-dependent, a "joiner" and sound follower
Self-sufficient, resouceful, prefers own decisions
|Q3||LOW SELF-SENTIMENT INTEGRATION
Undisciplined self conflict, lax, follows own urges, careless of social rules
|HIGH STRENGTH OF
Controlled, exacting will power, socailly precise, compulsive,following self image
|Q4||LOW ERGIC TENSION
Relaxed, tranquilt, torpid, unfrustrated, composed
|HIGH ERGIC TENSION
Tense, frustrated, driven, overwrought
Note: Factor B, intelligence, although not one of the 15 personality factors, being an ability measure, is in its usual position here in the 16 PF scales.
It has been
shown by Angst and Maurer-Groeli (1974) and Cattell et al. (1964) that there may
be associations between blood groups and personality characteristics, and Eysenck and
Eysenck (1982: Eysenck, 1977) have extended this work to national differences in
personality and blood groups. Their major finding is that introversion is significantly
more frequent among persons having the AB blood group. whereas neuroticism (emotionality)
is significantly more frequent in persons having blood group B.
The present study used the Cattell 16PF Inventory on a sample of 590 students of the 11 colleges of Kolhapur, Sangli and Solapur. The selected sample covered the faculties of Arts. Science, Commerce and Medicine, and in order to get sufficient females two ladies' colleges were included in ihe sample. Students came from all levels of society, including urban and rural.
Testing was done in two sessions. In the first session, the 16PF inventory was administered to a group of 40-50 persons at a time. after which their blood group was tested. On the following day inventories relating to socio-economic status. acceptance/rejection of the child by the parents, and an inventory to measure parental relations was administered to the same group. Rapport was established with the group before administration of tests. and they were asked to adopt a fictitious name and write it on all the four inventories in order to elicit true responses. Nearly 750 students were used in the original investigation. These individuals were then classified according to their blood groups, i.e. A, B, AB and O. These four groups were then matched on socio-economic status. parental relations. and acceptance/rejection by the parents. In the course of the matching, over 100 cases had to be dropped. Table I shows the classification of the 590 individuals in the four blood groups.
An analysis of variance of the four groups was done for each of the Cattell factors, except factor G. As the distribution of scores of factor G was considerably skewed. chi-square was computed; but did not prove statistically significant. F values for the factors shown in Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. t-Values were calculated for the various pairs of means of the factors having significant Only six such pairs were found to be statistically significant and are shown in Table 3.
The following conclusions can be drawn
Factor C: The significant Cs of the pairs (1) A vs B and (2) B vs O show that A- and O-group persons are emotionally more stable than B-group persons.
Factor O: B-group persons are more apprehensive than A-group persons.
Factor Q2: A-group persons are more self-sufficient than B-group persons.
Factor Q4: B- and O-group persons are more tense than AB-group persons.
Table 1. Classifications of 590 Ss into the four blood groups
Sex A B AB O Total M 110 105 30 105 350 F 60 75 20 85 240 Total 170 180 50 190 590
The following tools were used in this study:
(1) Form A of the 16PF Inventory of Cattell adapted for an Indian population by Kolhapur:
(2) Socio-econimic Status (SES) Inventory.
(3) Inventory to measure acceptance/reuection of the child by the parents:
(4) Inventory to measare parental cordial reelations.
Inventories (2)-(4) were developed bye the author as part of his Ph.D. research work. Their reliabilities and validities are given below:
Name of the Inventory
(1) SES Inventory
(2) Accenptance/rejection of the child by the parents
(3) Parental cordial relationsl
Table 2. Cattell factors showing significant F values
No. Factor Description of the factor F P df 1 C Affected by feelings vs emotionally stable 2.782 0.05 586 2 O Placid vs apprehensive 4.704 0.01 586 3 Q2 Group-dependend vs self-sufficient 2.289 0.05 586 4 Q4 Relaxed vs tense 2.613 0.05 586
Table 3. Significant comparisons of B and other blood groups
between the means
t P df (1) A vs B
(2) B vs O
(1) A vs B 0.88
2.100 0.05 348 (1) A vs B 0.80
2.446 0.02 348 (1) B vs AB
(2) AB vs O
scrutiny of the above results indicates a consistent trend about B group. It shows that as
compared to the other groups the B-group persons are (a) emotionally less stable, (b) more
apprehensive, (c) less self-sufficient, and (d)more tense.
Of these four characteristics, at least three -- (a), (b), (d) -- are readily be classified under 'affective' or 'emotional' behaviour. and the data therefore support the Angst and Maurer-Groeli (1974) findings that emotionality is related to blood group B. There are no data here to support the relationship between introversion and AB blood group.
ANGST J. and MAURER-GROLE Y. A. (1974)
Blutgruppen und Personlichkeit. Arch. Psychiat. 218. 291-300.
CATTFLL R., YOUNG H. and HUNDLESY J. (1964) Blood groups and personality trait, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 16, 397-402.
EYSENCK H. J., (1977) National differences in personality as related to ABO blood group polymorphism. Psycol. Rep. 41, 1257-1258.
EYSENCK H. J., and EYSENCK S. B. G. (1982) Recent advances in the cross cultural study of personality. Advances in Personality Assessment (Edited by SPEILBERGER C. D. and BUTCHERLT J. N.). Lawrence Erlbaum. Hillsdale, New Jersey.
These data showed the opposite result of other countries
(the West and Japan etc. ) for the most part. Jogawar said emotionality is related to Type
B. However, I don't know whether it is cultural difference of India and other
countries, or subjects were college students -- I know only a little about culture of
Anyway, these differences appeared in the data support my hypothesis. :-) Conditions like the followings are necessary for stable results.
1. Homogeneous subjects (social positon, age, region etc.)
2. The number of subjects is more than several hundred (more than one thousand and ratio of each blood types are the same, if possible)
3. Choose the personality description of Mr. NOMI.
4. Results does not correspond to Mr. NOMI's description ("language" does not represent "personality") -- also effected by culture and contry etc.
Condition 1. of my hypothesis is almost fulfilled (all subjects were college students, although regions are different) and conditions 2. & 4. are fulfilled. Condition 3. is difficult to be fulfilled because it is the question of language. Also, the difference of reply rate is perfect -- 10 to 20%. :-)
English Home Page