Nature 1983-1984


The Articles in Nature Magazine -- January 10, 1998

Excerpts from the following two articles that caused great sensation in the world. They are taken up frequently by both denial debaters and affirmative ones. The first articles in 1983 and five objections to it in commentary in 1984 with the objection from Beardmore.

The important point here is that Nature magazine had not made any conclusion.

The general conclusion seems to be that there can be no general conclusion.

The First article -- January 10, 1998

Title: "ABO genes are differentially distributed in socio-econimic groups in England" Nature, Vol. 303, pp. 522-524, 1983
Authors: J. A. Beardmore & F. Karimi-Booshehri, Department of Genetics, University College of Swansea

J. A. Beardmore and F. Karimi-Booshehri in UK studied the relationship between ABO blood type and socio-ecomic status. Subjects were 9,691 people in UK.

Five Objections -- January 10, 1998

Then, next five objections. The beginning is the contribution by joint signatures of the next two persons.

Number two is objections by joint signatures of three persons.

Jean Golding, Penny Hicks, N. R. Butler, Department of Child Health, University of Bristol

I can't make any objections (sigh). But, I wonder how occupation classification is done.

The third contribution is from the U. S. A.

James D. Hawkins, Department of Psychology, San Jose State University, San Jose

The fourth contribution is from Chile.

Carlos Y. Valenzuela, Department de Biologia, Celular Genetica, Facultad de Medicina

They assert the difference of social class is not caused by blood type but is caused by the difference of migrants and natives. The way of dividing of migrants and natives of the original paper are presenting such doubt. Natives are said to be more in lower social class in Chile. It may be true, because England is receiving the invasions of many foreign countries and/or races many times, certainly.

The last contribution is from America.

John Harting, Department Anesthesiology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 10009, USA.

Social classes are fixed and then they form probably different gene-groups, they said. Certainly, European social classes are said to be not so mobile.

Re-objection from the First Authors -- January 10, 1998

I introduce it briefly because it becomes to long.

Also, they showed Table 5 to proof that data check is carrying out it properly.  It is you who judge which is correct!

Comments -- January 10, 1998

Watching the data of the first paper,  certainly more Type As are in the upper class. My thought is close to the first paper's one. I consider data of the first paper is fairly reliable. The distribution of blood type differs by social class obviously, if my hypothesis is correct. Yet, the trend varies by region and times. Sometimes there is no difference. It is not surprising, even if such data appear, because the difference of personality by blood type has such a nature. Namely:

The above is my summary and comments. Mr. NOMI may have the same comments.

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Last Update: January 10, 1998