Donald A. Swan


Donald A. Swan's Study -- December 28, 1997

Excerpts from "The relationship between ABO blood type and factor of personality among south Mississippi 'Anglo-Saxon' school children" The Mankind Quarterly, pp.205-258, Vol. 20, 1980.

Donald A. Swan studied the relationship between ABO blood type and personalty factor after R. B. Cattell.  Subjects were 547 south Mississippi 'Anglo-Saxon' school children.

    For 547 students at the three Mississippi academies, both ABO blood type data and sten scores on the Cattell personality questionnaires were available. Tables 13, 14 and 15 present the distributions of the mean scores on the Cattell personality tests by ABO blood type for Columbia, Sanford and Brookhaven Academies respectively. Table 16 presents the distribution of the mean personality factor scores for the four ABO blood types for the three academies combined.
    As can be seen from Table 16, the mean scores for each personality factor differ by ABO blood type. The statistical significance of these mean blood type differences was tested by means of an analysis of variance. F-ratios were calculated for each of the fifteen sets of factor scores. In the case of Factor Q4 (Relaxed vs. Tense), the mean blood type differences were statistically significant at both the .05 and .01 levels. That is, those students of blood type O (X = 5.87) were more "tense" than those of blood type A (X 5.38) or blood type B (X = 5.24). On the other hand, those students of blood type AB (X = 6.71) were the most "tense" of all.
    In the case of Factor H (Shy vs. Venturesome), the mean blood type differences approached but did not reach significance at the .05 level. For this personality factor those students of blood type A (X = 5.41) were more "venturesome" than those of blood types O (X = 5.25) or AB (X = 4.29). Those subjects of blood type B (X = 5.55) had the highest mean score on this factor. The variance analysis test results for all fifteen personality factors are presented in Table 17.

There are three types of Raymond B. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Tests:

Only one factor showed significant difference:

The results were very similar to those obtained by Dr. Raymond B. Cattell in his 1964 study of Italian and Italo-American subjects.

As for private schools, one have to adjust parents' social positions or a school culture, to get correct data. But they are not written. Anyway, I get very interesting (almost the same traits of Japanese ones) as I tried to analyze Columbia Academy (348 students = about 70% of the whole).

    The trends differ to school to school more or less. Surprisingly enough, Swan didn't consider that Type B and Type AB students, relatively small number, may be relatives. He also didn't consider age constitution, parents' social positions and school culture. I have a doubt that these data is correct.
   Although it is good because good data appeared -- incidentally? Anyway, It supports my hypothesys that only homogeneous subjects show correct and significant results.
   The number of students are as follows (I reckoned backward). The data of other two schools are different a little bit.
  • HSPQ -- 159 students
  • CPQ  --  139 students
  • ESPQ -- 50 students

Cattell's 16 Personalty Factor test does not make "stereotype" -- some Japanese psychologists says -- because the relation between blood group and personality is not a general topic in America and its question items are not open to the public. By the way, 16PF test paper is not sold to usual people like me. I finally gave up to get it although I intended to examine question items.

ABO Blood Type and Personality Factor -- December 28, 1997

    In the course of his research Dr. Cattell has developed a number of questionnaire tests to provide careful descriptions of personality. These tests are designed to measure the primary surface traits and secondary source traits of personality which have been identified in his previous factor-analytic studies. For adult subjects he constructed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. This test consists of 184 multiple-choice questions selected to measure the level of sixteen primary personality factors and eight composite secondary personality factors.
    In order to study the development of personality, Cattell extended his factor-analytic studies to adolescents and children. In general, he found "similar factors at ages ranging from four-five years to adulthood, although there is a tendency to obtain fewer factors at the younger ages." Cattell also found evidence "for age trends on temperament factors, such as rises over the age range eleven to twenty-three in H (adventurousness) and C (ego strength), and drops in O (guilt-proneness) and L (suspiciousness)." (58)
    Dr. Cattell has also constructed questionnaire tests of personality for adolescents (ages 12 to 18), children (ages 8 to 12), and young children (ages 6 to 8). These are the fourteen-factor High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ), the fourteen-factor Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ), and the thirteen-factor Early School Personality Questionnaire (ESPQ). Table 12 presents a list of the fourteen factors of personality measured by the High School Personality Questionnaire. The technical titles, popular terms, and alphabetic designations are provided for each trait. (59)
    Each test consists of a number of multiple-choice questions selected to measure the personality factor structure appropriate for that particular age group. The raw scores of the test responses for each personality trait are converted into sten scores, which range from 1 to 10 with a mean of 5.5. Each trait is presented as "a bi-polar continuum, the two polar titles - describing the extreme opposite poles." Consequently, an individual with low sten scores of 1 to 3 on Factor A would be described as "reserved" or "aloof", while an individual with high sten scores of 8 to 10 would be described as "outgoing" or warm-hearted." (60)

(56) Raymond B. Cattell, Duncan B. Blewett, and John R. Beloff 1955 "The Inheritance of Personality," American Journal of Human Genetics, "Vol.7, No.2, pp.122-146.
(57) Robert C. Nichols 1978 "Twin Studies of Ability, Personality, and Interests," Homo, Vol.29, pp.158-172.
(58) Calvin S. Hall and Gardner Lindzey op. cit., pg. 399.
(59) Raymond B. Cattell and Mary D. L. Cattell 1975 Handbook for the Jr-Sr. High School Personality Questionnaire, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Charnpaign, Illinois, pp.6-8.
(60) Ibid., pp.19-21

Personality Factor -- December 28, 1997

TABLE 12a little modiefied


of Factor

Low Sten Score Description


High Sten Score Description


Reserved, detached, crictical, aloof, stiff
Outgoing, warmheartedness, easygoing, participating
At mercy of feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset, changeable
Emotionally stable, mature, faces reality, calm
Humble, mild, easily led, docile, accommodating
Assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn
Sober, taciturn, serious
Happy-go lucky, gay enthusiastic
Expedient, disregards rules
Conscientious, persistent, moralistic
Shy, timid, threat-sensitive
Venturesome, uninhibited, socially bold
Tough minded, self-reliant, realistic
Tender minded, sensitive, clinging, overprotected
Zestful linking group action
Circumspect individualism, reflective, internally restrained
Worrying, troubled
Group-dependent, a "joiner" and sound follower
Self-sufficient, resouceful, prefers own decisions
Undisciplined self conflict, lax, follows own urges, careless of social rules
Controlled, exacting will power, socailly precise, compulsive,following self image
Relaxed, tranquilt, torpid, unfrustrated, composed
Tense, frustrated, driven, overwrought

* Raymond B. Cattell and Mary D. L. Cattell, Handbook for the Jr.-Sr. High School Personality Questionnaire, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Champaign, Illinois, 1975, pg. 7.

Results -- December 28, 1997



Personality Factor Value Blood Type O Blood Type A Blood Type B Blood Type AB
1. Factor A
(Reserved vs. Warm-Hearted)
Mean 5.69 5.62 5.93 4.69
Standard Deviation 1.86 1.874 1.85 1.75
N 163 143 29 13
2. Factor B
(Dull vs. Bright)
Mean 5.66 5.71 5.90 5.77
Standard Deviation 1.93 1.80 1.88 1.30
N 163 143 29 13
3. Factor C
(Affected by Feelings vs. Emotionally Stable
Mean 5.37 5.59 5.34 4.54
Standard Deviation 1.85 2.05 2.21 1.33
N 163 143 29 13
4. Factor D
(Phlegmatic vs. Excitable)
Mean 5.60 5.66 5.69 6.15
Standard Deviation 1.90 2.11 2.07 2.15
N 163 143 29 13
5. Factor E
(Submissive vs. Dominant)
Mean 5.36 5.31 5.62 5.31
Standard Deviation 2.11 2.09 1.94 2.17
N 163 143 29 13
6. Factor F
(Sober vs. Enthusiastic)
Mean 5.40 5.36 6.24 4.77
Standard Deviation 2.11 2.09 1.94 2.17
N 163 143 29 13
7. Factor G
(Expedient vs. Conscientious)
Mean 5.13 5.17 4.93 4.77
Standard Deviation 1.83 1.97 2.14 1.92
N 163 143 29 13
8. Factor H
(Shy vs. Venturesome)
Mean 5.31 5.31 5.28 3.69
Standard Deviation 1.93 2.09 1.79 2.06
N 163 143 29 13
9. Factor I
(Tough-Minded vs. Tender-Minded)
Mean 5.04 4.97 4.52 4.92
Standard Deviation 2.06 2.06 2.34 1.19
N 163 143 29 13
10. Factor J
(Zestful vs. Circumspect)
Mean 4.93 4.97 5.00 6.08
Standard Deviation 1.97 1.94 2.14 2.02
N 163 143 29 13
11. Factor N
(Forthright vs. Shrewd)
Mean 5.14 5.09 4.81 6.40
Standard Deviation 1.99 2.13 2.26 1.34
N 91 77 16 5
12. Factor O
(Self-Assured vs. Guilt-Prone)
Mean 5.14 5.43 4.86 6.69
Standard Deviation 1.84 1.92 1.83 1.80
N 163 143 29 13
13. Factor Q2
(Group-Dependent vs. Self-Sufficient)
Mean 4.92 5.09 5.23 5.88
Standard Deviation 1.80 2.07 2.24 2.47
N 72 66 13 8
14. Factor Q3
(Undisciplined vs. Controlled)
Mean 5.32 5.33 4.92 4.58
Standard Deviation 1.79 2.06 1.87 1.88
N 135 125 26 12
15. Factor Q4
(Relaxed vs. Tense)
Mean 5.70 5.40 5.21 6.77
Standard Deviation 2.27 2.27 2.13 1.74
N 163 143 29 13

Relatively large or relatively small numbers

Summary -- December 28, 1997

    In the fall of 1975 an anthropological and psychological study was initiated of more than 1,000 school children of predominantly 'Anglo-Saxon' origin at three private academies in the southern Mississippi region of the U.S.A. Anthropometric data, pigmentation measures, dermatoglyphic data, serological data, and measures of intelligence and personality were obtained from the subjects. For the 646 students blood-typed for the ABO system, the combined distribution of phenotypes was: O = 46.0%, A = 42.7%, B = 7.6%, and AB = 3.7%. This ABO distribution is virtually identical with that found in central, southern, and eastern England and indicates a predominantly English origin of the subjects.
    For 547 of the 646 subjects blood-typed for the ABO system, scores on the Cattell multi-factor personality questionnaires were also available. This permitted a study of the relation between ABO blood type and factor of personality. The statistical significance of the differences between the four ABO blood types on fifteen factors of personality was tested by analysis of variance. On one of the fifteen factors, the F-ratio was significant at the .01 level. This was for Factor Q4 (Relaxed vs. Tense). Those subjects of blood type O were more "tense" than those of blood types A or B, while those of blood type AB were the most "tense." Differences between the four blood types in mean scores on a second factor - Factor H (Shy vs. Venturesome) - approached but did not attain statistical significance.
    These results were strikingly similar to those obtained by Dr. Raymond B. Cattell in his 1964 study of the relation between ABO blood type and factor of personality in a sample of 581 Italian and Italo-American subjects. However, the correlates obtained in his study were for different factors of personality. Such findings, as well as those from studies of the relation between mental ability and blood type genes, would suggest that genetic linkages between physical and behavioral traits may have occurred in the course of evolution. Such linkages would differ in reproductively isolated races and populations. The current evidence of positive correlations is inadequate but ssufficient to warrant further investigation of statistical correlations between behavioral traits and blood types. Such studies should comprise a variety of ability and personality tests, more blood group Systems, and larger samples obtained from different races and peoples.

Comments -- December 28, 1997

How is it? Don't you think that it resembles with the trend of Japanese? Especially, 13. agrees to Japanese one (however, it differs in the data of the other schools.). I think the followings are rough trend.

Group adherence: Type O = Type A < Type B < Type AB (the same trend of Japanese).
Type A is emotionally stable (Strangely enough!)
Type B is self-affirmative, bright, good-natured, my pace.
Type AB is cool, prudent, poor self-expression.

There is reappearance in the data of the above. Conditions like the followings are necessary for stable results.

1. Homogeneous subjects (social positon, age, region etc.)
2. The number of subjects is more than several hundred (more than one thousand and ratio of each blood types are the same, if possible)
3. Choose the personality description of Mr. NOMI.
4. Results does not corresponds to Mr. NOMI's description ("language" does not represent "personality")

Condition 1. of my hypothesis are not fulfilled (large diffirence of age) but 2. and 4. are fulfilled. Condition 3. is difficult to be fulfilled because it is the question of language. Also, the difference of reply rate is perfect -- 10 to 20%. :-)

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Last Update: December 28, 1997